A rhythmic style and dance originating from Brazil. Samba has a straight eighth, “2” feel in which each measure feels like it has two beats per measure.
Vocal improvisation with use of syllables that emulate instrumental jazz improvisation.
The dominant seventh chord a perfect fifth above the chord its progressing to, regardless of the key of the song. For example in the key of C major, a D7 progressing to G7 would be referred to as the five of five, meaning it’s a fifth above the V7 chord of the key. (V7/V7)
In a set-up the drummer plays an improvised rhythmic fill leading into, preparing or setting up a rhythmic kick or series of kicks. The set-up may be as short as a single beat or as long as several measures.
A four-note chord comprised of a triad with an added 7th scale degree. Seventh chords can be major, minor, dominant and so on.
The repeated pitch fluctuation of a held note for stylistic purposes.
Unrehearsed performance where a musician/singer is invited to perform a tune or two on someone else’s gig.
Short, slanted lines positioned in each measure of a rhythm section lead sheet to indicate the beats of the measure and chord alignment.
A chord played over a bass note that is different than the root of that chord. (Example: G-7/C)
Improvisation of new melodic lines over the chord progression of a song.
The organizational structure of a song. Common song forms in jazz include AABA, ABAB, ABAC and 12-bar blues.
See Jazz Standard.
STRAIGHT EIGHTH NOTES; STRAIGHT 8THS
Eighth notes that evenly divide each beat in half, as contrasted by Swing 8ths which have an uneven division. (See Swing Eighth Notes.)
An accompaniment pattern where a passage of music is played with a repetitive series of rhythmic breaks, usually occuring on the same beat of the measures.
The dividing of a rhythmic duration into two or more parts. For example a musician may be improvising on a ballad in 4/4, while also actively feeling a subdivision of 8th notes.
The replacement of one chord for another in a chord progression for purposes of creative harmonic interest.
SUSTAIN PEDAL; DAMPER PEDAL
The piano foot pedal located on the far right. Use of the sustain pedal helps to connect the chords smoothly in legato playing.
SWING EIGHTHS NOTES; SWING 8THS
Eighth notes that are interpreted with an underlying triplet feel.
SWING “4” FEEL
A driving feeling of four beats per measure. In “4” feel the bassist plays a walking bass line. (See “2” feel.)
SWING “2” FEEL
A rhythmic feeling of two beats per measure. In “2” feel the bassist plays primarily on beats 1 and 3. (See “4” feel.)
Rhythmic emphasis on the weak beats of a measure, such as beats two and four in 4/4.
The repetition of the last phrase or part of the last phrase of a song, usually 2 or 3 times.
A song form where no sections are repeated. For example the form ABCD would be through-composed.
A reference to maintaining steady tempo. It is every musician’s goal to develop a good sense of time.
The timbre of a voice or instrument.
The first degree of a scale.
The chord built on the first degree of a scale; the “I” chord.
Slang for the beginning of the tune.
A jazz improviser trading 4-bar solo phrases with a drummer (or other improviser). For example, the improviser plays 4, then the drummer solos on 4, then the improviser, and so on. It is also common to trade eights or sometimes twos.
Notating music heard from recordings.
The changing a song’s key from one to another.
The standard drum set played by jazz drummers. Typically includes a bass drum, one or more toms, a snare drum, one or more cymbals, and a hi-hat.
A dominant seventh chord that substitutes for the chord whose root is three whole steps (a tritone) away. For example, Gb7 is the tritone substitution for C7.
A specific style of pitch inflection that connects two notes and is commonly used in jazz.
Short chord progression that cycles through the circle of 5ths. For example, |Imaj7 |vi-7 |ii-7 |V7 ||
TWO-FEEL; 2 FEEL
See Swing “2” Feel.
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